- Peck, G., C. Miles, J. King, T. Bradshaw, N. Rothwell, and I. Merwin. 2014. An Introduction to Hard Cider in the U.S. eXtension.
- Peck, G. and C. Miles. 2015. Assessing the Production Scale and Research and Extension Needs of U.S. Hard Cider Producers. Journal of Extension. 53(5): Article 5FEA10.
- Merwin, I.A., S. Valois, and O.I. Padilla-Zakour. 2008. Cider Apple and Cider-Making Techniques in Europe and North America. Horticultural Reviews. 34:365-415.
- Peck, G.M. and W. Knickerbocker. 2018. Economic case studies of cider apple orchards in New York State. New York Fruit Quarterly 26(3):5-10.
- Peck, G. M. McGuire, T. Boudreaux IV, and A. Stewart. 2016. Crop Load Density Affects ‘York’ Apple Juice and Hard Cider Quality. HortScience 51(9):1098-1102. doi: 10.21273/HORTSCI10962-16
- Peck, G., M. Bateman, T. Chao, C. Miles, and I. Merwin. 2016. Importing European Cider Cultivars into the U.S. Poster presented at CiderCon 2016. Portland, OR.
- Miles, C., J. King, and G. Peck. 2015. Commonly Grown Cider Apple Cultivars in the U.S. WSU Cider Report 202. WSU NWREC, Mt. Vernon, WA. 2 pp.
- Merwin, I.A. 2015. Growing apples for craft ciders. New York Fruit Quarterly 23(1):5-9.
- Rosenberger, D. 2015. Top-working could speed production of cider apples. Blog post. Tree Fruit Diseases.
- Thompson-Witrick, K.A., K.M. Goodrich, A.P. Neilson, E.K. Hurley, G.M. Peck, and A.S. Stewart. 2014. Characterization of the polyphenol composition of 20 cultivars of cider, processing, and dessert apples (Malus X domestica) grown in Virginia. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 62:10181-10191.
- Rosenberger, D.A., F.W. Meyer, R.C. Christiana, and A.L. Rugh. 2008. Disease susceptibility of 11 hard-cider apple cultivars in southeastern New York, 2006-2007. Plant Disease Management Reports 2:PF030. <pdf>
- Valois, S., I.A. Merwin, and O.I. Padilla-Zakour. 2006. Characterization of fermented cider apple cultivars grown in Upstate New York. Journal of the American Pomological Society. 60(3):113-128.
- Ma, S., A.P. Neilson, J. Lahne, G.M. Peck, S.F. O’Keefe, E.K. Hurley, A. Sandbook, and A.C. Stewart. 2018. Juice clarification with pectinase reduces yeast assimilable nitrogen in apple juice without affecting the polyphenol composition in cider. Journal of Food Science. 8(11):2772-2781. http://doi.org/DOI:10.1111/1750-3841.14367
- Ma, S., A.P. Neilson, J. Lahne, G.M. Peck, S.F. O’Keefe, and A.C. Stewart. 2018. Free amino acid composition of apple juices with potential for cider making as determined by UPLC-PDA. Journal of the Institute of Brewing.
- Boudreau IV, T.F., G.M. Peck, S.F. O’Keefe, and A.C. Stewart. 2017. Free Amino Nitrogen Concentration Correlates to Total Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen Concentration in Apple Juice. Food Science and Nutrition. 6:119-123. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.536
- Boudreau IV, T.F., G.M. Peck, S. Ma, N. Patrick, S. Duncan, S.F. O’Keefe, and A.C. Stewart. 2017. Hydrogen sulphide production during cider fermentation is moderated by pre-fermentation methionine addition. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. doi: 10.1002/jib.449.
- Boudreau IV, T.F., G.M. Peck, S.F. O’Keefe, and A.C. Stewart. 2017. The interactive effect of fungicide residues and yeast assimilable nitrogen on fermentation kinetics and hydrogen sulfide production during cider fermentation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 97(2): 693–704. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.8096.
- Gerling, C., O. Padilla-Zakour, A.K. Mansfield, D.C. Manns, C. McGregor, B. Rickard, and M. Sugrue. 2016. Fermentation optimization and consumer acceptance evaluation of New York apple varieties as a base for hard cider. NY Fruit Quarterly 24(1):20-23.
- Gerling, C.J., M.E. Sugrue, C. McGregor, A.K. Mansfield, and O.I. Padilla-Zakour. 2016. Commercial Tannin Addition to Increase Polyphenolic Content of Ciders Made From Popular NY Apples. Poster presented at CiderCon 2016. Portland, OR.
Marketing and Economics
- Sugrue, M. and R. Dando. 2018. Cross‐modal influence of colour from product and packaging alters perceived flavour of cider. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 124(3):254-260. http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jib.489
- Pashow, L. 2018. Hard Cider Supply Chain Analysis. Cornell Cooperative Extension, Harvest NY.
- Galinato, S. and G. Peck. 2016. The Economics of Growing Cider Apples. Proceedings paper presented at CiderCON 2016. Portland, OR.
- Farris, J.G., G.M. Peck, and G.E. Groover. 2013. Assessing the Economic Feasibility of Growing Specialized Apple Cultivars for Sale to Commercial Hard Cider Producers. Virginia Cooperative Extension Publication AREC-46P, Blacksburg, VA. 15 pp.
- Matson Consulting. 2012. Feasibility Study for a Small Farm Cidery in Nelson County, VA.
- Solimeno, D.,Henesey, T. and C. Kennedy. 2018. Maker’s Guide to Cider Law: 2018 Guide to Licensing, Labeling, Excise Tax, and Direct Shipment for New York Cider Makers. Designed and prepared for the New York Cider Association by the Food and Beverage Law Clinic at Elisabeth Haub School of Law.
- Complying with New York’s Alcoholic Beverage Control Law- A Guide For Craft Manufacturers
- NYS Special Provisions Related to Cider
Cider and Apple Associations
The United States is home to a rapidly growing number of cideries and New York is no exception! To help foster a larger sense of community among producers some cider associations have been established; visit their webpages to learn more about the many services and membership benefits they offer as a state or national cider association.
Cornell Cooperative Extension
Cornell’s Tree Fruit Website– offers a plethora of information for best practices of growing apples including: production manuals, fact sheets, organic guides, and economic data.
Cider Resources at Other Universities
Cornell often collaborates with other universities to develop a strong research support network for apple growers and cider producers alike. Explore what some of our partner institutes have for hard cider resources.
- Washington State University
- University of Vermont
- Pennsylvania State University
- Michigan State University
- Montana State University